Evolution of the ADHD concept and its relation to the hyperkinetic disorders: Narrative review
Keywords:ADHD, adulthood, the evolution of the concept, DSM, ICD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a unique disorder. It usually develops in early childhood and, in 50% of cases, continues to be a lifelong disorder, which poses significant challenges for researchers and clinicians. The new criteria set by the World Health Organization merged the category of Hyperkinetic Disorders and the ADHD category.
This narrative review aims to explore and ease the adoption of the ADHD concept for clinicians and researchers who were used to working with Hyperkinetic Disorders by (1) analyzing the evolution of the ADHD concept from its establishment in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) until DSM-5; (2) comparing the contemporary concepts of ADHD in DSM-5 and Hyperkinetic Disorders in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10); and (3) describing some new challenges the ADHD concept will face in the future.
The structure and the dimensions of the concept are explored, including some possible new core symptoms such as emotional dysregulation and mind wandering. Adult presentations of symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention are presented. The recent challenges of the global pandemic of covid-19 are also addressed.
In conclusion, the concept of ADHD has been dramatically improved since its establishment. However, the bio-psycho-social perspective needs to be better balanced in ADHD-related science.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Jana Sklepníková, Alena Slezáčková
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