The time perspectives of the dark tetrad in males and females: Preliminary findings of sex differences in sadism




time perspectives, Dark Triad, Dark Tetrad, sex differences, sadism


Objectives. Understanding the relationship between the time perspectives and the Dark Tetrad can shed light on some of the mechanisms underlying these personality traits, and exploring potential sex differences in these relationships can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the Dark Tetrad and its implications for both males and females. The previous studies produced valuable knowledge on the relationships between different time perspectives and the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism), but they mainly neglected sex differences and have not considered sadism. This study aimed to explore Dark Tetrad and time perspectives association in males and females separately.
Sample and settings. The sample included 350 participants (170 males and 180 females, aged 18 to 69) who completed the Short Dark Triad, the direct sadism scale from Varieties of Sadistic Tendencies, and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.
Hypotheses. It was assumed that Dark Tetrad traits would relate positively with the present-time perspectives in both sexes but stronger in males.
Statistical analyses. After exploring the correlations at the baseline level, sex differences were examined by moderation analysis, followed by separate multiple regressions for both sexes.
Results. The Dark Tetrad traits were mainly associated with present orientation in both sexes, with differences based on participants’ sex. Narcissism was more strongly related to the present hedonistic perspective in females, and psychopathy more strongly to the present fatalistic in males. Notably, sadism exhibited striking differences. In males, sadism was only related to the present fatalistic perspective, whereas in females, it was associated with present-hedonistic and past negative perspectives. This study provided initial insights into the time perspective of sadism, highlighting a potentially greater role of negative early-life experiences in females.
Limitations. Sample characteristics, correlational design, single-measure dark traits assessment, and the lack of early-life events measure were discussed.




How to Cite

Nedeljković, B., Tucaković, L., & Dimoski, J. (2023). The time perspectives of the dark tetrad in males and females: Preliminary findings of sex differences in sadism. Československá Psychologie, 67(3-4), 179-191.